Fondi di Baia WAVE Living Lab 2022

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Area Fondi di Baia
Place Bacoli
Country Italy
Topics Water and Heritage
Authors Cavallo_Landulfo_Limmatola_Sorrentino_Vodnala
Baia fondi.jpg


  • It is an important territory because it has a strong rural tradition of excellence, inside the Campi Flegrei Park
  • It is fundamental to give a historical continuity to a territory steeped in tradition which, unfortunately due to illegalism and abandonment of both the countryside and the whole territory, is waning
  • The main challenge of this area is to deal with the problem of accessibility, as infrastructure is scarce or poorly maintained

Location and scope

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Water as a natural system

Geomorphology, typologies and dynamics of water areas

  • The Phlegraean Fields, occupy the south-western part of the Campanian plain, have a motto articulated morphology which is due to the superimposition of the deposits of numerous eruptive centers and "calderic" collapses, which occurred in the last 50,000 years
  • Campi Flegrei are an area with diffents ancient volcanic crater, some of them are filled with water, as the Fusaro, Averno, Miseno and Lucrino lake, while some of them are filled with vegetation. Slowly, over the centuries, bradyseism has caused much of the ancient evidence to collapse, which has always affected the entire north coast of the Neapolitan area

Water as a living space

  • The good climatic conditions have favored the settlement of Apennine and Mediterranean plant species, which are distributed according to the environmental conditions: this is why in the Phlegraean territory, many plant associations coexist in a small space. The presence of stretches of water favors the formation of a mesophilic flora, typical of the Apennines, while at the highest altitudes it is common to meet Mediterranean vegetation which enjoys the greatest insolarization and aridity
  • It has an excellent and bathing water quality according to the analyzes carried out by Arpac Campania
  • There are no completely natural areas, there is always a minimal presence of anthropization

Blue and Green Infrastructure

  • The major potential elements of the area in relation to green and blue infrastructures is certainly the presence of the Fusaro and Miseno lakes that surround the study area, creating an ecological corridor towards the sea together with the large green spaces that characterize the area. As shown in the map, there are also flood and hydraulic risk areas that could lead to a change or disappearance of natural elements

Water as a cultural space

Land use and water

  • As shown in the map, the rural landscapes of the study area are characterized not only by agricultural wealth but also by the structure of the agricultural systems. What catches the eye is above all the vastness of the rural component that characterizes the entire area under consideration. Excellent is the production of wines and fruit and vegetables.
  • Agricultural plants have their own history that has been handed down over time, and it is certainly a wealth that must be protected and valued, as well as preserved for the new generations
  • Due to the phenomenon of bradisimo, as well as to the ever increasing urbanization and natural phenomena such as hydraulic and alluvial risk, the land use may be destined to change

Cultural and spatial typologies of water areas

  • The urban morphology of our area has never followed a regular path, it's characterized by a sort of widespread urbanization. Probably one of the attractive factors which brought to the first settlements, was the presence of the castle, centre of life during the Aragonese domain. Another important features may have been the presence of the seaside and the near port of Baia. This contributed to generate an economy mainly based on fishing but, thanks to the wide contryside, even based on agricolture. In addition to the sea, another type of water that is very present is the thermal water, very common in all the Phlegraean area

Sacred spaces and heritage

  • The main elements that hold cultural value are:
  • The Castle of Baia, which was built between 1490 and 1493 by the Aragonese and enlarged between the 16th and 18th centuries during the Spanish Viceroyalty, dominates the summit of the promontory that closes the Gulf of Baia to the south. It currently houses the Archaeological Museum of the Phlegraean Fields; the walls of the Castle contain the remains of a grandiose Roman villa, an example of a maritime residential system that rises from the sea for almost a hundred meters to the top of the promontory, where the Roman floors are preserved in excellent condition. The villa was built already in the second century. B.C.
  • The Monumental Park of Baia which, purchased from the state property, preserves this strip of landscape, rich both from an archaeological and naturalistic point of view. The wild Mediterranean scrub mixes with orderly orchards, spread out, as in the tradition of the Phlegraean Fields, on the steep slopes of what remains of a volcanic crater. The archaeological excavation has intervened only on a minimal portion, highlighting the remains of a villa built starting from the 2nd century BC. The nerve center of the complex always remained a long portico overlooking the Gulf of Baia: the panorama, which can still be enjoyed from here, was certainly one of the main advantages of this complex.

Visual appearance and landscape narrative

  • Surely the most characteristic elements of the landscape are the presence of the castle located on the hill of Baia, and widely represented in landscape views, and the presence of the sea that bathes the luxuriant ridge of the hill
  • As shown by the images, the landscape was represented by the painter Carlo Bonavia in a view of the castle from the sea, by the painter Alessandro d'Anna in a view from the Gulf of Pozzuoli and in a drawing, probably in charcoal but of an unknown, in which you can see how the castle communicated with sea water

Water and People

Accessibility and usability

  • The water area which are accessible are the Castle of Baia beach and the Villa Ferretti beach; they both have controlled access. There aren't other area where the sea is accessible because of the rocky conformation of the hill, so the spatial obstacles are natural and clearly strong.
  • Everyone can enjoy this places but their biggest obstacle is that they can only be reached by sea.

Community Mapping

In the Baia area there are social groups and local stakeholders groups, which actively move throughout the territory.

Social groups, below there are various associations and their interests:

"Cuma sports", is interested in all types of sports;

"Il Pappice", is interested on the environment. It is an independent newspaper of political, civil, social and cultural struggle;

"Pro Loco Baia", is interested in activities related to tourism, nature conservation and cultural sites in the area;

"Bacoli in corso", is interested to promote the commercial activities and historic centers.

Local stakeholder groups: belowe there are various stakeholder groups and their interests:

"Associazione Percorsi Cumani", this association promotes cycle mobility;

"Nostro Bacoli", this association promotes the maritime mobility;

"Free Bacoli", this association promotes the urban recovery, the redevelopment of public areas and parks, the viability and the limited traffic area;

"Diamo a Bacoli", is a political-cultural association, is interested the peoples that they lived in this area;

"N'Ostro Sud", this association is the promotion of the beauties and the riches of the area.

Possible Futures

  • It considers that the possible future scenarios are two: either nothing is done about that area and increases the degradation, or it intervenes design point and improves the situation.
  • DPSI(R) Model: Build a protection system off the Gulf of Baia to protect the coast from erosion, rising sea and possible floods. Measures must be taken to protect sensitive coastal areas from damage: the construction of artificial reefs is an optimal solution as it minimizes the impacts on the ecosystem. A breakwater is a barrage overlooking a port. The defense of beaches from erosion involves measures aimed at reducing the energy of the wave motion incident on the coast or the dispersion of materials offshore. The purpose of the breakwater is therefore to cause a dissipation of the energy of the wave motion before the waves reach the shore, inducing a reduction in agitation in the protected area and must be oriented in the direction of the waves.
  • Problems: Slowly, over the centuries, bradyseism has caused much of the ancient evidence to collapse, almost as if to further tighten the link between the Campi Flegrei  and water, its generating element. The particularity of these areas is linked to the volcanic phenomenon of bradyseism which has always affected the entire north coast of the Neapolitan area. This phenomenon has caused vertical movements of the area with positive and negative excursions of many meters, causing the sinking of the Roman coast line of about 6/8 meters in the last 2000 years. The remains of the commercial ports of Baia and the Portus Julius are submerged on this coast. Further north was the port of Capo Miseno, the historical seat of the Roman imperial fleet.

Collaborative Goal Setting

  • Define strategic planning objectives based on the evaluation findings from your analysis
  • Ideally, involve the community of your living labs into this process
  • Link back to your original targets from section one and the Development Goals
  • 150 words text contribution

Spatial Strategy and Transect

  • translate your strategic goals into a vision
  • develop a spatial translation of your vision
  • exemplify your vision in the form of a transect with concrete interventions
  • add map(s) and visualizations

From Theory of Change to Implementation

  • For implementing your vision: Which partnerships are needed? Which governance model is required?
  • Who needs to act and how? Draw and explain a change/process model/timeline
  • Which resources are needed? On which assets can you build?
  • add 150 words text and visuals


Process Reflection

  • Reflect in your intercultural and interdisciplinary team on the outcomes of your study
  • Which limitations were you facing?
  • What have you learnt from each other?
  • What did you learn in the Living Labs?
  • What would you do differently next time?
  • You can also use diagrams/visuals
  • 250 words text